Skills to Screen for in 2nd Grade

Non-word Reading 

Non-word reading is the ability of a student to decode the meaning of a word that actually does not exist in the language. 

Rapid Naming 

Rapid naming is the skill of being able to quickly name visual cues in the correct order. These cues could be pictures, numbers or letters. 

Oral Language Ability 

Oral language ability refers to skills and knowledge related to speaking and listening. 

Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension 

This skill is the ability for an individual to read with speed, accuracy and proper expression, indicating that they comprehend the text. 

Skills to Screen for in 2nd Grade

Nonsense Word Reading/Decoding

 

Nonsense word reading represents the isolated ability of students to apply their decoding skills to sound out phonetically regular words that carry no meaning (e.g. dord, churm, flep). Students' ability to decode reflects the degree to which they understand the underlying sound-symbol correspondences and can phonetically recode the skills of the alphabetic principle. Accordingly, nonsense word reading is strongly related to oral reading fluency which in turn predicts comprehension (Fien,Baker, Smolkowski, Smith, Kame'enui & Beck, 2008Good et al., 2003; Rouse & Fantuzzo, 2006)

Rapid Automatized Naming 

 

Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) refers to the automaticity with which a child can retrieve the names of a set of serially presented symbols such as objects, colors, letters, or numbers. RAN parallels the cognitive and neural demands of fluent reading, and is a strong early predictor of later reading fluency (Schatschneider, Fletcher, Francis, Carlson, & Foorman, 2004). The predictive power of RAN also varies depending on what stimuli are used (e.g., numbers, pictures, or letters), with colors and objects being stronger predictors in earlier grades (Norton & Wolf, 2012). *If these skills have been previously screened for, repeated administration is not necessary. 

Oral Language Ability 

 

Slow language development as indicated by delayed onset of talking, short mean length of utterances, lower complexity of syllables produced, and poor receptive or expressive vocabulary, has been

associated with poor literacy outcomes 

(Flax, Realpe-Bonilla, Roesler, Choudhury & Benasich, 2009; Lyytinen, Eklund, Lyytinen, 2005). An important distinction has been made between receptive and expressive language development. While most late-talkers with typical receptive language will develop typical literacy skills, children with language delay in both expressive and receptive realms are more likely to experience persistent language and reading difficulties (Rescorla & Roberts, 2002; Scarborough, & Dobrich, 1990). *If these skills have been previously screened for, repeated administration is not necessary. 

Oral Reading Fluency  

 

Oral Reading Fluency refers to students' ability to read passages with speed, accuracy and proper expression, indicating that they comprehend the text. Beginning in first grade students' rate of oral reading fluency has been shown to be the strongest predictor of current and later (3rd grade) reading comprehension (Kim, Petscher, Schatschneider, & Foorman, 2010; Petscher, & Kim, 2011). 

Family History

 

Due to the hereditary nature of dyslexia, family history is one of the strongest risk factors for developing dyslexia (Gaab & Ozernov-Palchik, 2016). Familial studies suggest that dyslexia occurs in up to 68% of identical twins and up to 40–60% of individuals who have a first-degree relative with dyslexia (See Resources for more information). Assessments should include questions regarding the family's known history of dyslexia, struggles with reading or academic failure. *If family history has been previously screened for, repeated administration is not necessary.